|Emirates Boeing 777-300|
|Manufacturer||Boeing Commercial Airplanes|
|Designed by||Alan Mulally|
|Introduction||1995-06-07 with United Airlines|
|Primary users||Singapore Airlines (65)
Air France-KLM (58)
United Airlines (52)
American Airlines (47)
|Number built||621 as of March 2007|
|Unit cost||777-200: US$178–195 million
777-200ER: US$190–212.5 million
777-200LR: US$219–243 million
777-300: US$210–234 million
777-300ER: US$237–264 million
777F: US$232.5–240 million
The Boeing 777 is an American long-range wide-body twin-engined airliner built by Boeing's Commercial Airplanes division. It can carry between 301 and 368 passengers in a three-class configuration and has a range from 5,210 to 9,420 nautical miles (9,649 to 17,445 km). Distinguishing features of the 777 include the set of six wheels on each main landing gear, its perfectly circular fuselage cross section, the pronounced "neck" aft of the cockpit, and the blade-like rear tailcone.
The 777 was the first commercial aircraft to be designed entirely on computer. No paper drawings were ever produced; everything was created on a 3D CAD software system known as CATIA. This allowed a virtual 777 to be assembled in simulation, allowing engineers to examine for interferences and to test whether the many thousands of parts would fit together properly before costly physical prototypes were manufactured.
In the 1970s, Boeing unveiled new models: the twin-engine 757 to replace the venerable 727, the twin-engine 767 to challenge the Airbus A300, and a trijet 777 concept to compete with the DC-10 and the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar.
Based on a re-winged 767 design, the 275 seat 777 was to be offered in two variants: a 5,000 km (2,700 nm) transcontinental and an 8,000 km (4,320 nm) intercontinental.
The twinjets were a big success, due in part to the 1980s ETOPS regulations. The launch of the 777 was cancelled (much like the trijet concept of the Boeing 757) in part because of the complexities of trijet design and the absence of a 40,000 lbf (178 kN) engine. The cancellation left Boeing with a big size and range gap in its product line between the 767-300ER and the 747-400. The DC-10 and L-1011, which entered service in early 1970s, were also ripe for replacement. In the meantime, Airbus developed the A340 to fulfill that requirement and compete with Boeing.
The initial proposal from Boeing was simply to enlarge the 767, resulting in the 767-X concept. It was similar to a 767 but with a longer fuselage and larger wings seating about 340 passengers and with a maximum range of 7,300 nautical miles (13,500 km).
The airlines were unimpressed with the 767-X. They wanted short to intercontinental range capability, cabin cross section similar to the 747, a fully flexible cabin configuration and an operating cost lower than any 767 stretch. The result was a new design: the 777 twinjet.
The design phase of the 777 differed from that of previous Boeing jetliners. For the first time, eight major airlines and their passengers had a role in the development of the plane. The major airlines consulted were United Airlines, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, ANA, British Airways, JAL, Qantas, and Cathay Pacific. The "Working Together" philosophy, as Boeing called it, meant that the 777 was their most customer oriented aircraft yet. As of January 2007, Qantas is the only carrier, of the major airlines consulted, who has yet to order the 777.
Due to rising fuel costs, airlines began looking at the Boeing 777 as a fuel efficient alternative compared to other widebody jets. With modern engines having extremely low failure rates (as seen in the ETOPS certification of most twinjets) and increased power output, four engines are no longer necessary except for very large aircraft, such as the Airbus A380 or Boeing 747.
Singapore Airlines is the largest operator of the Boeing 777 family with 66 in service, of which 46 are of the 777-200ER variant, 12 are 777-300s and 8 are 777-300ERs. Another 11 777-300ERs are on firm order, with 13 more on option.
As of April 2007, 50 customers have placed 988 orders for 777s.
Boeing employed advanced technologies in the 777. These features included:
Folding wingtips were offered when the 777 was launched but no airline has purchased this option. This feature was meant to appeal to airlines who might use the aircraft in gates made to accommodate smaller aircraft.
Boeing made use of work done on the cancelled Boeing 7J7, which had validated many of the chosen technologies.
The 777 first flew on June 14, 1994 piloted by 777 Chief Test Pilot John E. Cashman. The aircraft would later undergo a flight test programme more extensive than any other Boeing model. The development, testing, and delivery of the 777 was the subject of the documentary series, "21st Century Jet: The Building of the 777." The FAA awarded full 180 minute ETOPS clearance ("ETOPS-180") for PW4074 777-200s on May 30, 1995. The 777 was the first aircraft to carry an ETOPS-180 rating at its entry into service.
A notable design feature is Boeing's decision to retain conventional control yokes rather than fit sidestick controllers as used in many fly-by-wire fighter aircraft and in some Airbus models. Boeing viewed "stick and rudder" controls as being more intuitive for pilots.
The 777 has the same Section 41 as the 767. This refers to the part of the aircraft from the tip of the nose, going to just behind the cockpit windows. From a head-on view, the end of the section is very evident. This is where the bulk of the aircraft's avionics are stored.
The interior of the Boeing 777, also known as the Boeing Signature Interior, has later been used on other aircraft, including the 767-400ER, 747-400ER, newer 767-200s and 767-300s. The interior on the Next Generation 737 and the Boeing 757-300 is loosely based on the 777's interior, but also blends in aspects from the 757-200 interior. The 777 also features larger, more rounded windows than most other aircraft. The 777-style windows were later adopted on the 767-400ER and Boeing 747-8. The Boeing 787 and Boeing 747-8 will feature a new interior evolved from the 777-style interior, and in the case of the 787, will have even larger windows.
Boeing uses two characteristics to define their 777 models. The first is the airframe size, which affects the number of passengers and amount of cargo that can be carried. The 777-200 and derivatives are the base size. A few years later, the aircraft was stretched into the 777-300.
When referring to variants of the 777, Boeing and the airlines often collapse the model (777) and the capacity designator (200 or 300) into a smaller form, either 772 or 773. Subsequent to that, they may or may not append the range identifier. So the base 777-200 may be referred to as a "772" or "772A", while a 777-300ER would be referred to as a "773ER", "773B" or "77W". Any of these notations may be found in aircraft manuals or airline timetables.
The 777-200 (772A) was the initial A-market model. The first customer delivery was to United Airlines (FAA: N777UA) in May 1995. It is available with a maximum take-off weight (MTOW) from (229 to 247 tonnes) and range capability between 3,780 and 5,150 nautical miles (7,000 to 9,500 km).
The first 777-200 built was used by Boeing's non-destructive testing (NDT) campaign in 1994–1995, and provided valuable data for the -200ER and -300 programs (see below). This A-market aircraft was sold to Cathay Pacific Airways and delivered in December 2000.
The direct Airbus equivalent is the A330-300.
Originally known as the 777-200IGW (for "increased gross weight"), the longer-range B market 777-200ER (772B) features additional fuel capacity, with increased MTOW range from 263 to 286 tonnes and range capability between 6,000 and 7,700 nautical miles (11,000 to 14,300 km). ER stands for Extended Range. The first 777-200ER was delivered to British Airways in February 1997.
The 777-200ER can be powered by any two of a number of engines: the 84,000 lbf (374 kN) PW4084 or Trent 884, the 85,000 lbf (378 kN) GE90-85B, the 90,000 lbf (400 kN) PW4090, GE90-90B1, or Trent 890, or the 92,000 lbf (409 kN) GE90-92B or Trent 892. In 1998 Air France took delivery of a 777-200ER powered by GE90-94B engines capable of 94,000 lbf (418 kN) thrust. The Rolls Royce Trent 800 is the leading engine for the 777, with a total market share of 43%. The engine is used on the majority of 777-200s, ERs and 300s as the engine is not offered for the 200LR and 300ER.
On April 2, 1997, a Boeing 777-200ER, tail registration 9M-MRA (dubbed the "Super Ranger") of Malaysia Airlines, broke the Great Circle Distance Without Landing record for an airliner by flying east (the long way) from Boeing Field, Seattle, to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, covering the distance of 20,044 km in 21 hours, 23 minutes.
In August 2006, a total of 462 Boeing 777-200 aircraft (both -200 and -200ER) are in airline service, with 53 further firm orders. Major operators include: Air China (10), All Nippon Airways (23, plus four on order), Japan Airlines (25, plus one on order), Korean Air (11, plus seven on order), Malaysia Airlines (17), Saudi Arabian Airlines (23), Singapore Airlines (46), Vietnam Airlines (10), Air France (25), Alitalia (10), British Airways (43, plus 10 on order), KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (13, plus one on order), American Airlines (46, plus seven orders), Continental Airlines (18, plus two orders) and United Airlines (52). Some 19 other airlines also operate smaller numbers of the type.
The stretched A market 777-300 (773A) is designed as a replacement for 747-100s and -200s. Compared to the older 747s, the stretched 777 has comparable passenger capacity and range, but burns one third less fuel and demands 40% lower maintenance costs.
It features a 33 ft 3 in (10.1 m) fuselage stretch over the baseline 777-200, allowing seating for up to 550 passengers in a single class high density configuration and is also (13 tonnes) heavier. The 777-300 has tailskid and ground manoeuvring cameras mounted on the horizontal tail and underneath the forward fuselage to aid pilots during taxi due to the aircraft's length.
The typical operating range with 386 three class passengers is 5,720 nautical miles (10,600 km). It is typically powered by two of the following engines: 90,000 lbf (400 kN) PW4090 turbofans, 92,000 lbf (409 kN) Trent 892 or General Electric GE90-92Bs, or 98,000 lbf (436 kN) PW-4098s.
As of August 2006, a total of 60 Boeing 777-300 aircraft are in airline service with All Nippon Airways (seven), Cathay Pacific (12), Emirates Airline (12), Japan Airlines (seven), Korean Air (four), Singapore Airlines (12) and Thai Airways International (six).
The 777-200LR (772C) ("LR" for "Longer Range") became the world's longest range commercial airliner when it entered service in 2006. Boeing named this plane the Worldliner for its ability to connect almost any two airports in the world. It is capable of flying 9,420 nautical miles (17,446 km) in 18 hours. Developed alongside the 777-300ER, the 777-200LR will achieve this with huge 110,000 lbf (489 kN) thrust General Electric GE90-110B1 turbofans, or GE90-115 turbofans, a significantly increased MTOW and three optional auxiliary fuel tanks manufactured by Marshall Aerospace in the rear cargo hold. Other new features include raked wingtips, a new main landing gear and additional structural strengthening. Rolls Royce originally offered the Trent 8104 engine with a thrust of 104,000 and 114,000 lbf (463 to 507 kN), and has been tested up to 117,000 lbf (520 kN). However Boeing and Rolls Royce could not agree on risk sharing on the project, and so the engine was never offered to customers. The roll-out was on February 15, 2005 and the first flight was at March 8, 2005, with EIS in January 2006. The second prototype made its first flight on May 24, 2005. The only mass-produced aircraft with greater unrefueled range is the military, non-passenger carrying KC-10 Extender.
The 777-200LR was initially proposed as a 777-100X. It would have been a shortened version of the 777-200, analogous to the Boeing 747SP. The shorter fuselage would allow more of the take-off weight to be dedicated to fuel tankage, increasing the range. Because the aircraft would have carried fewer passengers than the 777-200, while having similar operating costs, it would have had a higher cost per seat. With the advent of more powerful engines, the 777-100X proposal was replaced by the 777X program, which evolved into the Longer Range 777-200LR.
On November 10, 2005, a 777-200LR set a record for the longest non-stop flight by passenger airliner by flying 11,664 nautical miles (13,422 statute miles, or 21,602 km) eastwards (the westerly great circle route is only 5,209 nautical miles) from Hong Kong to London, UK. The journey took 22 hours and 42 minutes. This was logged into the Guinness World Records and surpassed the average range of the Boeing 777-200LR, which is around 9,420 nm.
The first Boeing 777-200LR was delivered to Pakistan International Airlines on February 26, 2006, and the second on March 23, 2006. There are at least five Boeing 777s in service right now with PIA and the company plans to replace all its older jets with the series. Under a deal Pakistan also produces components and other spare parts for Boeing 777 series. Last year Boeing itself bought components and spare parts from Pakistan worth $100 million. Other customers include Air India and EVA Air. On November 9, 2005, Air Canada confirmed an order for the jets, which had previously been canceled due to labor issues. Emirates announced on November 20, 2005 that they bought ten of these aircraft as part of a larger 777 order (42 in all). On September 12, 2006, Qatar Airways, announced firm orders for the Boeing 777-200LR along with Boeing 777-300ER. On October 10, 2006, Delta Air Lines announced two firm orders of the aircraft to add to its long haul routes. Delta has since announced that it will order three more of the aircraft for a total of five.
Air New Zealand are also looking at the possibility of using the -200LR variant to add with their -200ERs for a new Auckland to New York route, beginning an ultra-long range route. They have a possible four options.
In August 2006, a total of two Boeing 777-200LR aircraft are in airline service with Pakistan International Airlines. Firm orders total 40 from: Air India (eight), Emirates Airline (10), EVA Air (two), Qatar Airways (six), Delta Air Lines (five), and Air Canada (six).
The closest Airbus equivalent is the A340-500 (with 700 km less range than a Worldliner, but free from ETOPS restrictions). A proposed future model, the A350-900R, aims to have a range up to 9,500 nautical miles or 17,600km.
After the announcement of the new Airbus A350XWB family, Boeing proposed to lower the weight of the Boeing 777-200LR with more composites to attract an order from Qantas for nonstop Sydney to London route. The weight reduction will be approximately 15,000 pounds.
The 777-300ER is the Extended Range (ER) version of 777-300, and contains many modifications, including the GE90-115B engines, which are the world's most powerful jet engine with 115,300 lbf (513 kN) thrust. Other features include raked wingtips, a new main landing gear, extra fuel tanks (2,600 gallons), as well as strengthened fuselage, wings, empennage, nose gear, engine struts and nacelles and a higher MTOW, 775,000 lb versus 660,000 lb for the 777-300. The range with a 365 passenger three-class configuration is 7,880 nautical miles (14,594 km). The 777-300ER program was launched by Air France, though for political reasons, Japan Airlines was advertised as the launch customer. The first flight of the 777-300ER was February 24, 2003. Delivery of the first 777-300ER to Air France occurred on April 29, 2004.
The main reason for the 777-300ER's extra 3,500 km (1,900 nm) range over the 777-300 is not merely the extra 2,600 gallons of fuel (45,220 to 47,890), but the increase in the maximum take-off weight (MTOW).
The -300ER is slightly less fuel efficient than the regular -300 because it weighs slightly more and has engines that produce more thrust. Both the -300 and -300ER weigh approximately 360,000 lb empty, have the same passenger and payload capacity, but the ER has a higher MTOW. The increased MTOW means that a -300ER with the same payload can carry about 110,000 lb more fuel than the -300. This enables the ER to fly roughly 34% farther with the same passengers and cargo. Without the increase in fuel capacity due to larger fuel tanks, the -300ER's range would still be 25% greater at equal payload. In a maximum payload situation, the -300 would only be able to fill its fuel tanks about 60%, while the -300ER could be filled to capacity.
Since the introduction of the -300ER, six years after the -300's first delivery, all orders for the -300 series have been the ER variant. The 777-300ER's direct Airbus equivalent is the A340-600HGW, which has a 9% higher fuel consumption due to using four engines.
As of February 2007, a total of 75 Boeing 777-300ER aircraft are in airline service with Air Canada (one, plus 10 orders), All Nippon Airways (eight, plus five orders), Emirates Airline (17, plus 37 orders), Etihad Airways (five), EVA Air (five, plus eight orders), Japan Airlines (six, plus seven orders), Singapore Airlines (seven, plus 12 orders), and Air France (17, plus nine orders). Firm orders total 173 and include Air India (15), Cathay Pacific (18), Jet Airways (10), Pakistan International Airlines (three), Philippine Airlines (six), Qatar Airways (14), KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (four), TAM Linhas Aéreas (four orders, four options), and Virgin Blue (six orders, one lease, six options).
The 777 Freighter (777F) is an all-cargo version of the 777-200. It is an amalgamation of features from the 777-200LR and the 777-300ER. It uses the engines and structural upgrades of the 777-200LR combined with the fuel tanks and undercarriage of the 777-300ER. With the 747 moving up in weight and capacity (747-8), Boeing will be offering the 777F as a replacement for older 747F and MD-11F freighters. This model was officially offered starting on May 23, 2005. The 777F is expected to enter service in late 2008.
The 777F promises excellent operating economics compared to existing freighters. The aircraft has a large interior volume and excellent range. The 777F will have a payload of 103 tons. This is very close to the capacity of the 747-400F, which has a payload of 112 tons. The two aircraft have a nearly identical payload density. The 777F will be powered by the 110,000 lbf (489 kN) GE90-110B1 engines identical to the 777-200LR.
With the same fuel capacity as the 777-300ER, the 777F will have excellent range. However as with all aircraft, freighters included, maximum range is measured based on maximum payload. This limits the 777F to a range of 9,065 km or (4,895 nm) if at maximum payload. This means the aircraft takes off with its tanks half full.
For airlines that carry lighter cargo the 777F can travel much longer distances non-stop. Air Canada has purchased two of these for their Vancouver to Shanghai and Vancouver to Hong Kong routes among others. Both these routes are farther than 9,000 km. These planes will take off a bit lighter and with more fuel on board. Boeing thinks parcel carriers, as well as others who are more concerned with volume rather than weight, can for example carry flights from mainland United States to China without making stops at cities like Anchorage, Alaska. This will bring new efficiencies and save time.
Airbus has no comparable aircraft but is developing two models with similar specifications to the 777F. The A330-200F will carry less payload but is a smaller and a cheaper alternative. The proposed A350-900F is a more capable competitor, however even this model is not designed to target the exact market of the 777F. It will carry around 90 tons. The MD-11F is another comparable aircraft but with less range than the 777F. When the 777F enters service in 2008, it is expected to be the longest-range freighter in the world. The 747-400ERF can carry more cargo and travel farther than the 777F, but the 747-8F replacing it will have less range than the 747-400ERF in the interest of more payload.
On November 7, 2006, FedEx cancelled its order of ten Airbus A380-800Fs, citing the delays in delivery. FedEx said it would buy 15 777Fs instead, with an option to purchase 15 additional 777Fs. FedEx's CEO stated that "[t]he availability and delivery timing of this aircraft, coupled with its attractive payload range and economics, make this choice the best decision for FedEx."
Potential customers are Lufthansa Cargo, United Parcel Service, and EVA Cargo. Air Canada, along with Air France-KLM have signed on as the 777F launch customers. The order for seven aircraft, (five for Air France and two for Air Canada) is worth US$1.5 billion at list prices, and the first delivery will be in 2008. Air Atlanta Icelandic has ordered eight 777F aircraft, while Emirates SkyCargo has also ordered eight. In December 2006, there were firm orders for a total of 49 777 Freighters from FedEx (15), Emirates SkyCargo (eight), Avion Group/Air Atlanta Icelandic (eight), Air France (five), Guggenheim Aviation Partners (three), Air Canada (two), and Qatar Airways (two).
|Seating capacity||305 (3-class)||303 (3-class)||N/A||394 (3-class)||365 (3-class)|
|Length||209 ft 1 in (63.7 m)||242 ft 4 in (73.9 m)|
|Wingspan||199 ft 11 in (60.9 m)||212 ft 7 in (64.8 m)||199 ft 11 in (60.9 m)||212 ft 7 in (64.8 m)|
|Height||60 ft 9 in (18.5 m)|
|Cabin Width||19 ft 3 in (5.86 m)|
|Fuselage Width||20 ft 4 in (6.19 m)|
|Plane Weight||307,000 lb
|Maximum take-off weight||545,000 lb
|Cruising Speed||.84 Mach (639.4 mph)|
|Cargo Capacity||5,302 ft³ (150 m³)||22,455 ft³
|7,080 ft³ (200 m³)|
|Range fully loaded||5,210 nm
|Takeoff run at MTOW||8,000 ft
|11,000 ft (3,353 m)||N/A||10,600 ft
|Max. Fuel Capacity||31,000 US gal
|45,220 US gal
|53,440 US gal
|47,890 US gal
|45,220 US gal
|47,890 US gal
|Service Ceiling||43,100 ft (13,135 m)|
|Engine (x 2)||PW 4077
|GE 90-110B||PW 4098
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